Texas holds a unique place in American history and geography. As the saying goes, ‘Texas is the only state that was an independent nation before joining the United States.’ This intriguing fact about Texas often leads people to ask: what country is Texas in today?

If you’re short on time, here’s a quick answer to your question: Texas is currently part of the United States of America. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population.

In this nearly 3000 word article, we’ll take a comprehensive look at Texas and its history. We’ll cover topics like:

– The early history of Texas as part of Spain and Mexico

– How Texas became an independent republic in 1836

– Why and when Texas joined the United States as the 28th state

– Details on the geography, economy, population, and culture of modern-day Texas

– Common questions around Texas’ status and relationship with the U.S.

The Early History of Texas as a Spanish and Mexican Territory

Texas has a rich and fascinating history that dates back centuries. Before it became part of the United States, Texas was first settled by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. Let’s dive into the early history of Texas as a Spanish and Mexican territory.

1500s-1800s: Spanish Colonial Era

In the 1500s, Spanish explorers such as Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and Francisco Vázquez de Coronado explored the land that is now Texas. These expeditions laid the foundation for Spanish colonization in the area.

In the early 1700s, Spanish missions were established in East Texas, with the aim of converting Native Americans to Christianity and expanding Spanish influence in the region.

The Spanish colonial era in Texas lasted for several centuries, during which the population grew and trade flourished. Spanish settlers brought with them their culture, language, and traditions, leaving a lasting impact on the identity of Texas.

1810s-1820s: Mexico’s Independence Brings Changes

In the early 19th century, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and Texas became a part of the newly formed Mexican Republic. The Mexican government aimed to increase colonization in Texas and offered land grants to attract settlers from the United States and Europe.

This influx of Anglo-American settlers led to a significant demographic shift, with the Anglo population surpassing the Mexican population in Texas. These settlers brought with them their own customs and traditions, which clashed with the Mexican authorities and their laws, leading to growing tensions between the two groups.

1830s: Texas Revolution Against Mexico

The 1830s marked a turning point in Texas history, as tensions between the Anglo-American settlers and the Mexican government escalated. Dissatisfaction with Mexican policies, including restrictions on immigration and attempts to enforce Mexican law in the region, led to a movement for Texas independence.

The Texas Revolution, which began in 1835, resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Texas in 1836. The famous Battle of the Alamo, where a small group of Texan defenders fought against a larger Mexican force, became a symbol of defiance and courage in the fight for independence.

The Republic of Texas existed for nearly a decade before it joined the United States in 1845, becoming the 28th state. This marked the end of Texas’ history as a Spanish and Mexican territory and the beginning of its place within the United States.

For more information about the early history of Texas, you can visit the Texas State Library and Archives Commission or the Texas State Historical Association.

The Republic of Texas Era (1836-1845)

The Republic of Texas era refers to the period from 1836 to 1845 when Texas existed as an independent country before joining the United States. This era played a significant role in shaping the history and identity of Texas.

Winning Independence in 1836

In 1836, Texas declared its independence from Mexico after the famous Battle of San Jacinto. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army achieved a decisive victory over the Mexican forces, capturing General Antonio López de Santa Anna and securing Texas’ independence.

This victory marked the beginning of the Republic of Texas.

During this period, Texas developed its own government structure, with a constitution that mirrored that of the United States. Sam Houston was elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas, and the capital was initially established in the town of Columbia before being relocated to Houston and later Austin.

Struggles and Accomplishments as a Republic

Despite its newfound independence, the Republic of Texas faced numerous challenges during its existence. The country struggled with financial difficulties and was burdened with debt, which led to debates and disagreements among its leaders.

However, the republic also achieved significant accomplishments during this time.

One notable achievement was the establishment of a strong military presence to defend the borders of Texas. The Texas Rangers, a group of skilled and fearless fighters, played a crucial role in maintaining security and protecting the settlers from Native American attacks and banditry.

The Rangers’ legacy continues to this day as a symbol of Texan bravery and independence.

Additionally, during the Republic era, Texas made efforts to attract settlers and promote economic growth. Land grants were offered to encourage immigration, and the population of Texas grew rapidly. Agriculture and trade flourished, particularly in cotton production, which became a vital part of the Texan economy.

Debating Statehood in the U.S.

As the Republic of Texas flourished, discussions and debates arose regarding its potential annexation into the United States. Some Texans favored joining the U.S. to benefit from its economic opportunities and security, while others were concerned about the potential loss of their independent identity.

These debates continued for several years, with political factions forming in favor and against annexation. Ultimately, in 1845, Texas officially became the 28th state of the United States, ending the era of the Republic of Texas.

Today, the Republic of Texas era is remembered as a significant chapter in Texan history, highlighting the resilience and determination of the Texan people. It laid the foundation for the state’s unique cultural identity and continues to shape its politics and heritage.

Texas Joins the United States and the Mexican-American War

When examining the history of Texas, it is impossible to overlook its involvement in the Mexican-American War and its subsequent admission into the United States. This significant period in Texas’ history shaped its identity and set the stage for its place within the country.

Texas Becomes the 28th State in 1845

In 1845, Texas officially became the 28th state of the United States. This followed its annexation by the United States Congress after a period of being an independent republic. Texas had gained independence from Mexico in 1836 after the famous Battle of San Jacinto, led by General Sam Houston.

The Texan people overwhelmingly supported annexation, and it was a momentous occasion when Texas officially joined the United States.

Boundary Disputes Lead to War with Mexico

However, Texas’ entry into the United States did not come without controversy. The annexation led to border disputes with Mexico, as Mexico still considered Texas as its own territory. This disagreement ultimately led to the Mexican-American War, which lasted from 1846 to 1848.

The war was a result of tensions between the two nations over not only the borders of Texas but also the larger issue of land expansion and control in the western territories. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, in which Mexico recognized Texas as part of the United States and ceded a vast amount of territory to the U.S.

The Compromise of 1850 Sets Texas’ Borders

After the Mexican-American War, the issue of Texas’ borders still remained. The Compromise of 1850, a series of legislation passed by the United States Congress, addressed this issue and effectively set the boundaries of Texas as we know them today.

As part of the compromise, Texas relinquished its claims to certain territories in exchange for the assumption of its public debt. This agreement solidified Texas’ borders and allowed for a more stable relationship between the state and the rest of the United States.

For more information on the history of Texas and its involvement in the Mexican-American War, you can visit www.tshaonline.org, a reputable source of Texas history.

Texas in the 20th and 21st Centuries

Population and Economic Growth Since 1900

Over the course of the 20th and 21st centuries, Texas has experienced remarkable population and economic growth. In 1900, Texas had a population of approximately 3 million people, and by 2020, that number had skyrocketed to over 29 million.

This tremendous growth can be attributed to a variety of factors, including the discovery of oil in the early 20th century, the development of the state’s transportation infrastructure, and the influx of immigrants from other parts of the United States and abroad.

As the population grew, so did the economy of Texas. The state’s economy has diversified over the years, with industries such as oil and gas, agriculture, technology, and manufacturing playing significant roles.

Texas is now home to some of the largest corporations in the world, including ExxonMobil, AT&T, and Dell.

The Modern Economy and Culture of Texas

Today, Texas is known for its thriving economy and diverse culture. It has one of the highest GDPs among all the states in the United States, contributing trillions of dollars to the national economy each year.

The state’s economy is driven by various sectors, including energy, agriculture, healthcare, finance, and tourism.

With its vast and diverse landscape, Texas offers a wide range of recreational activities and cultural attractions. From the vibrant music scene in Austin to the stunning natural beauty of Big Bend National Park, there is something for everyone in the Lone Star State.

Texas is also home to numerous professional sports teams, including the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Rockets, which further contribute to its rich cultural tapestry.

Texas Pride and Identity Within the U.S.

Texans are known for their strong sense of pride and identity. The state’s unique history and culture have fostered a deep connection among its residents, who proudly refer to themselves as “Texans.” From the iconic cowboy hats and boots to the famous Tex-Mex cuisine, Texas has a distinct identity that sets it apart from other states.

Texans also have a strong sense of loyalty and patriotism towards the United States. Despite being the second-largest state in terms of both area and population, Texas has a unique position within the country.

This pride is often demonstrated through the state’s flag, which is commonly seen flying alongside the American flag.

Answering Common Questions About Texas’ Status

Can Texas Legally Secede from the U.S.?

One common question that arises when discussing Texas’ status is whether it has the legal right to secede from the United States. The short answer is no. The issue of secession was settled by the American Civil War, and the Supreme Court ruled that states do not have the right to unilaterally secede.

However, it is worth noting that Texas does have a unique history that includes being an independent republic before joining the United States. This history has fostered a sense of pride and independence among some Texans.

Does Texas Have Special Powers and Autonomy?

While Texas does not have the power to secede, it does enjoy a certain level of autonomy within the United States. One of the most notable examples of this is the Texas State Constitution, which grants the state certain powers and rights.

For instance, Texas has control over its own electrical grid, known as the Texas Interconnection, which is separate from the rest of the country. Additionally, Texas has its own criminal justice system, and it has the ability to raise and maintain its own military forces, known as the Texas State Guard.

Is Texas a Country? Clarifying Texas’ Relationship with the U.S.

Despite its unique history and certain powers, Texas is not a country. It is one of the 50 states that make up the United States of America. However, Texas has a distinct identity that sets it apart from other states.

It is the second-largest state in terms of both land area and population, and it has a rich cultural heritage that combines elements of Mexican, Western, and Southern traditions. Texas also has a strong economy, with industries such as oil and gas, technology, and agriculture contributing to its success.

For more information about Texas’ relationship with the United States, you can visit Texas State Library and Archives Commission’s website.


As we’ve explored, Texas has a complex history that has shaped its status today as the 2nd largest U.S. state. While Texans are known for their fierce pride, Texas has been part of the United States for over 175 years since joining in 1845.

While its unique past has led some to question Texas’ country status, the facts confirm Texas is part of the U.S. Despite periodic calls for secession, Texas remains firmly integrated politically, economically and culturally into the United States of America.

Similar Posts